### ABOVE-GROUND HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE)

DESIGN METHOD:EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION The expansion and contraction for an unrestrained PE pipe can be calculated by the following equation:Change in Length = UL = (T2-T1) L Equation 1 Where:UL = theoretical length change, inches Where:positive values = expansion, negative values = contraction

### APPLICATIONS Bridge Crossings with Ductile Iron Pipe

Expansion/ Contraction Couplings) should be considered. Mechanical joints (see Figure 2 on next page) are often used for fittings but are not generally used for straight runs of pipe. To accommodate possible pipe movement caused by thermal expansion and contraction, the push-on joint may be a better choice than the mechanical joint due to its BRIDGE CROSSINGS WITH DUCTILE IRON PIPEstability be pr ovided at r oller supports behind bells, for both restrained and unrestrained joint pipe systems. A double roller guide or bracketed design (roller below and above the pipe) with lateral bracing is one method of accomplishing this (see Figure 8). Expansion/Contraction Couplings

### Bellows - EJMA

Apr 19, 2021 · Design. Expansion joints consist of a flexible bellows element with end fittings such as flanges to allow connection to the adjacent piping or equipment. Bellows are manufactured from relatively thin-walled tubing to form a corrugated cylinder. The corrugations, commonly referred to as convolutions, add the structural reinforcement necessary Calculating Pipe Expansion and ContractionDec 27, 2012 · This usually happens when pipe expansion or contraction is restricted by improperly designed piping systems or pipe support. So how can one account for this dimensional change? The answer involves a little math. There is a formula some engineer or other brainiac type came up with to figure out the extent a pipe might expand or contract.

### EBAA Iron, Inc. - Leaders in Pipe Joint Restraint and

Restraint Harness for Unrestrained Couplings. The Series 1100CH restrains existing or new couplings on Ductile Iron Pipe (over-sized restraints available for Pit Cast Iron Pipe). The split MEAGALUG restraints and 'offset' tie bars are made of ductile iron conforming to ASTM A536. Available in sizes 14 inch through 36 inch. EBAA Iron, Inc. - Leaders in Pipe Joint Restraint and The Series 1100 MEGALUG ® Mechanical Joint Restraints effectively and economically restrain Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP) to mechanical joints above or below ground, for practically any application including valves, hydrants, and pipe. For use on all classes of ductile iron pipe (PC350 through PC150 and CL56 through CL50) without damage to the pipe or cement linings.

### EXPANSION JOINT DESIGN GUIDE - Metraflex Piping

DESIGN FREEDOM! X X X 6' - 6" 13' 36" 46" Anchor Loads 12800 Lbs. 1200 Lbs. 202 Lbs. Pipe Guide Bellows Expansion Joint Hard Pipe Loop Design Conditions Pipe - 6 inch Schedule 40 Movement - 4" Axial Compression Pressure - 150 PSI Temperature - 300F Length of Run - 177 feet 98% less anchor load than Bellows Expansion Joint 83% less Gas Distribution FAQ Chevron Phillips ChemicalNormally it is not a concern for buried municipal water or sewer pipelines. Soil will provide sufficient restraint against movement. However, thermal effects must be considered for above-grade or aerial pipelines. The unrestrained expansion/contraction coefficient for PE pipes is approximately 9 x 10-5 in/in/°F. See technical note PP814

### Non-Restrained Fittings and Pullout Prevention - Pexgol

Generally, it is necessary to anchor the ends of a Pexgol pipeline that transitions into an unrestrained joint pipe system. Design of wall anchors and thrust blocks. A typical anchoring technique is installing a fixpoint clamp or a Pexgol flanged coupling on the pipe close to the wall, and pouring concrete around it. Non-restrained fittings Pipe Expansion & Contraction Thermal Solutions for PipeworkPipe Expansion & Contraction Solutions Thermal pipe expansion and contraction as a result of temperature changes within pipework is a significant phenomenon that cannot be overlooked. It is often not the amount of expansion which is of concern as much as its relationship with pipe

### Piping Flexibility - Thermal Expansion in Piping - The

- Piping Flexibility RequirementPipes Natural FlexibilityExpansion Loop and Expansion JointAdvantages of An Expansion Joint Versus A Expansion LoopPiping is used to convey a certain amount of fluid from one equipment to another. It is obvious that the shortest straight path for the pipe seems to be most economical and viable in the first sense. There can be many reasons; 1. Shorter the pipe, lesser the capital expenditure required in procurement, welding and erection. 2. Shorter the pipe, lesser will be the pressure dropmaking it more suitable for the proper operation. 3. Shorter the pipe, lesser will be the number of supports required to support thPipes and Tubes - Temperature ExpansionPipes - Heat Expansion and Cooling Contraction - Expansion or contraction when heating or cooling cast iron, carbon and carbon molybdenum steel, wrought iron, copper, brass and aluminum pipes Piping Elbows - Thrust Block Forces - Thrust block forces on pipe bends anchor due to liquid velocity and internal pressure - online resulting force
PureFlex Durcor, the world's first advanced structural Design for Expansion and Contraction. Simple supported Durcor piping can be easily designed by considering the degree of thermal expansion along straight runs of pipe and any possible pressure thrusts created by closed end systems. Length changes due to thermal expansion in an unrestrained
### Restrained Anchored Pipe Stress Design Equations Formulas

Equations are for restrained or anchored pipe stress due to temperature change. pipe expansion and contraction. Solve for unrestrained pipe length. Solve for coefficient of thermal expansion. Solve for temperature change. TN 27 Frequently Asked Questions - HDPE Pipe for considered for above grade applications. The unrestrained coefficient of thermal expansion for HDPE pipe is approximately 9x10-5 in/in/ oF. Information regarding thermal calculations for restrained and un-restrained above-ground and slip-lined pipelines can be found in PPIs Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe

### Thermal Expansion - Stress and Force

Expansion of unrestricted pipe:dl = (12 10-6 m/mK) (50 m) ((90 o C) - (20 o C)) = 0.042 m. If the expansion of the pipe is restricted - the stress created due to the temperature change can be calculated as. dt = (200 10 9 N/m 2) (12 10-6 m/mK) ((90 o C) - (20 o C)) = 168 10 6 N/m 2 (Pa) = 168 MPa What is Restrained and Unrestrained Pipes:Part 2 BLOGSep 28, 2019 · In this case axial pressure stress will be correct for both restrained and unrestrained zones. The expansion stress should be checked for both restrained and unrestrained pipes. The same way ASME B31.8 strength criteria can be improved. The summary of suggested strength criteria for ASME B31.4 and B31.8 shown in the following tables. Table 1.

### What is Restrained and Unrestrained Pipes:Part 2 What

In this case axial pressure stress will be correct for both restrained and unrestrained zones. The expansion stress should be checked for both restrained and unrestrained pipes. The same way ASME B31.8 strength criteria can be improved. The summary of suggested strength criteria for ASME B31.4 and B31.8 shown in the following tables. Table 1. buried pipe calcstressIf an aboveground or unrestrained part of an underground pipe which is under temperature change faces a resistance, some internal loads are developed in the pipe. These internal loads including axial, shear forces and bending moments create stresses which are known as thermal expansion or contraction stress.

### TR-21 Thermal Expansion and Contraction in Plastics

fully unrestrained pipe that occurs in consequence of a given change in temperature:L = L T (Equation 1) Where:L = change in pipe length, in L = initial pipe length, in T = change in pipe temperature , °F = coefficient of linear expansion/contraction, in/in °F

## Other steel